Putting it all Together: The Menstrual Cycle Anatomy

First, let's take a look at the female reproductive anatomy from the front and side: 
As you can see, the ovaries (the site of egg storage) are connected to the uterus (the womb) by the fallopian tubes. Each month, an egg bursts out of the ovary (it literally breaks out of the ovary; sometimes causing a sudden sharp pain during ovulation) and gets sucked into a fallopian tube. Here is an image of the egg breaking through the wall of a real ovary: 
The egg then travels up the fallopian tube to the top zone (close to the uterus). It stays there for about 24 hours hours and if it isn't fertilized, it disintegrates. A menstrual period then occurs 2 weeks later. During a menstrual period, hormonal changes cause the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) to shed off and out the vagina. This lining contains spiral arteries, veins, and glands, (these develop to nourish a fetus if fertilization occurs) thus giving menstrual blood its mucousy/bloody quality. 
Lumen = inside layer of uterus
Epithelium = top layer of cells on the inside layer of uterus
Overall, here is a timeline of a normal 28-day cycle: